(Investigator 149, 2013
theory of Applied
Kinesiology is attributed to Dr. George Goodheart, a chiropractor in
Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A. It had its beginning in 1964 when Dr.
Goodheart was treating a young man with muscular dysfunction which
caused the scapula (shoulder blade) to protrude like a "wing".
problem was eliminated when Goodheart discovered that deep pressure on
the serratus anticus muscle improved its function. It was later claimed
that nutrition and acupressure are correlated with muscle inhibition.
notion that muscles were related to other parts of the body, and muscle
testing became a diagnostic tool. The idea being that a weak muscle
causes tension in the opposing muscle, affecting a related organ.
muscle and related organ, the practitioner applies firm pressure to the
appropriate acupuncture point, while the patient is subjected to
various influences varying from foods and herbs to music and colours.
This treatment supposedly stimulating and strengthening the weakened
based on the same erroneous principles as acupuncture. That is, the
existence of invisible and undetectable correlations between points on
the surface of the body and the internal organs.
of A-K have
repeatedly shown that under controlled testing conditions, responses
in The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry (1981, 45(3):321-23),
using 41 college students unfamiliar with Applied Kinesiology. The
deltoid muscle was selected in an attempt to duplicate current
The investigators were unable to duplicate the
results obtained by kinesiologists. In a second study, involving muscle
strength and weakness involving 19 students, 11 showed no change in
deltoid strength between muscle weakening and strengthening techniques.
nutritional double-blind test, involved 16 students. Ten students
tested weaker after sugar input, two tested stronger, and four tested
published by the International College of Applied Kinesiology from 1981
to 1987 appeared in the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological
Therapeutics, 1990, 13(4).
Of the 50 published papers, only 10 were
classified as research papers and these were subject to further
scrutiny relating to criteria considered crucial in research
methodology. Namely, a clear identification of sample size, inclusion
criteria, blind and naive subjects and statistical analysis. Although
some papers satisfied several of these criteria, none satisfied all
seven of them. As none of the papers included adequate statistical
analyses, no valid conclusions could be drawn concerning their report
of findings (Journal of Manipulative Physiological Therapeutics,
when subjected to
testing, A-K proved unable to live up to its claims according to a
report by the American Dietetic Association in 1988. Eleven subjects
were evaluated independently by three experienced A-K practitioners for
four nutrients (thiamine, zinc, vitamins A and C). The results obtained
from the A-K practitioners were compared with
other for inter-examiner reliability;
tests of nutrient status for validity; and
isometric muscle-testing to test the validity of the subjective
"strong" and "weak" muscular responses.
researchers found no
significant correlation between practitioners,
biochemical tests or objectively measured muscular strength and A-K.
"that the use of Applied Kinesiology to evaluate nutrient status is no
more useful than random guessing".
should be noted that
A-K is not a part of the science-based field of Kinesiology.
Edwards, H. 1999 Alternative, Complementary, Holistic &