Two articles
1   God, Love and Hell
— Kirk Straughen
2   God, Love and Hell
— Anon

God, Love and Hell

Kirk Straughen

(Investigator 143, 2011 May)

"The angels will come out and separate the evil from the righteous, and throw them into the furnace of fire; there men will weep and gnash their teeth." (Matt. 13:49-50.)

"Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angles... And they will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life." (Matt. 25:41-46.)

In my opinion, no one with a humane conscious could support the idea of eternal damnation and the suffering it entails. Yet, this pernicious doctrine has been developed and taught by the Christian church since its inception and, in certain denominations, is still an article of faith even to this day.

The purpose of this essay is to examine the traditional concept of hell — a place of eternal torment for the damned — to see if it is compatible with the idea of a loving, just and merciful god (NOTE: All quotations are from the Revised Standard Version.) Indeed, that such a problem exists can be seen when we read 1 John 4:8 that assures us "God is love," and 1 Corinthians 13:4-7 which says:
"Love is patient and kind; love is not jealous or boastful; it is not arrogant or rude. Love does not insist on its own way; it is not irritable or resentful; it does not rejoice at wrong, but rejoices in the right. Love bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things."
If God exists and is love, then it is inconceivable that this being would condemn people to a state of eternal suffering. Indeed, there is little doubt this harsh doctrine has instilled considerable, and in my opinion, unnecessary fear in people. Furthermore, the idea serves no sensible purpose.

If some believers argue it exists as a punishment for sin, then it is both unjust and barbaric — it is out of proportion, offering as it does, unlimited punishment for limited sins: Humane people, although imperfect, know if a government enacted laws requiring criminals to be tortured unremittingly, that this would be immoral – therefore, how much more so a God who is morally perfect.

Another argument is that hell acts as a deterrent to sin. However, if this is so, then it has clearly failed — religious inspired atrocities and other moral failings clearly show that the threat of hell has failed to make believers better people. Indeed, it may have had the opposite effect — inspiring some to imitate their god's viciousness.

Others may suggest that hell is a kind of prison for incorrigible souls, but if so, then it is an inhumane one. Indeed, there should be no need for hell — if God is the epitome of wisdom, then it would have created conditions conducive to the reformation of the damned, and I fail to see how eternal suffering can achieve this end.

Finally, if hell merely serves the purpose of revenge, then of what value is this? Damning those who committed sins will not change the fact that sins have been committed. Furthermore, hell rather than eliminating evil merely perpetuates it. Indeed, I have often wondered how the elect will enjoy heaven knowing that the damned are enduring eternal suffering.

How, then, can the idea of hell be explained? Before addressing this question it is important to remember that the Bible was not written by a single person, but by many people who imbued its pages with their own ideas of God and morality. For example:
"Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, pray for those who abuse you. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also." (Luke 6:27-29)
The extremely vicious tone of Psalm 109, however, provides us with a stark contrast to these non-violent ethics:
"Let his prayer be counted as sin! May his days be few; may another seize his goods! May his children be fatherless, and his wife a widow! May his children wander about and beg; may they be driven out of the ruins they inhabit... Let there be none to extend kindness to him, nor any to pity his fatherless children." (Ps. 109:7-12)
To me it is clear that the authors of scripture were only human.
They created an image of God that was colored by their individual temperaments and prejudices — humane authors conceived God as kind and merciful, while others painted a picture of a harsh retribution driven deity.

In my opinion, the idea of hell is most likely a product of the human mind that probably arose out of powerlessness and oppression — in other words, a fantasy motivated by the base desire for revenge that offers as a kind of psychological compensation, the idea prosperous and untouchable enemies in this life will be punished in the next.



(Investigator 144, 2012 May)

Eternal punishment — what some call "hell" — reflects the value of the Earth; the value of God's love and mercy; the value of human life, prosperity and peace; and the suffering and standards humans have imposed on others.   


Consider first the mercy of God. The setting of Matthew 25:31-46 is the judgment after the return of Jesus, when the current world has ended, and people are sent either into "the kingdom" or into "the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels":

Then the King will say to those on his right, 'Come, you who are blessed by my Father; take your inheritance, the kingdom prepared for you since the creation of the world. For I was hungry and you gave me something to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you invited me in, I needed clothes and you clothed me, I was sick and you looked after me, I was in prison and you came to visit me.'

Then the righteous will answer him, 'Lord, when did we see you hungry and feed you, or thirsty and give you something to drink? When did we see you a stranger and invite you in, or needing clothes and clothe you? When did we see you sick or in prison and go to visit you?'

The King will reply, 'I tell you the truth, whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers of mine, you did for me.' (25:34-40)
The same discussion then occurs with people on "his left" and concludes:
"He will reply, 'I tell you the truth, whatever you did not do for one of the least of these, you did not do for me.'" (25:41-46)
Initially it seems there are two groups here, designated "sheep" and "goats". But there are three. The third is "these brothers of mine".

The brothers are the New Testament Christians — "Jesus is not ashamed to call them brothers…" (Hebrews 2:10-17) Neither those on Jesus' "right" nor "left" are informed Christians — that is why they ask, "When did we…?"

The Bible here teaches salvation for the "righteous" who performed a kindness to a needy "brother of Christ" — some bread, water, shelter, clothing, help in sickness, or visit in prison! The listed helps are examples; the range is more extensive.

Mercy so widely available, so easily accepted, requires deliberate snubbing to avoid. The Bible portrays God as ready to forgive because Jesus paid everyone's penalty. What is necessary is acceptance. John writes: "God so loved the world that he gave his only son, so that everyone who believes in him may not perish but may have eternal life." (John 3:16)  Some people accept salvation by conversion and becoming "brothers of Christ". Others accept in principle and are "excused" because their conduct was such that God judges them "righteous". (Romans 2:13-15)

Even evil done in ignorance may be forgiven: "Father forgive them, for they know not what they do." (Luke 23:34; Acts 17:30)

For in the same way as you judge others, you will be judged, and with the measure you use, it will be measured to you. (Matthew 7:2)

For all of us must appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each may receive recompense for what he has done in the body, whether good or evil. (II Corinthians 5:10)

For judgment will be without mercy to anyone who has shown no mercy. (James 2:13, 24; Matthew 5:7)

…all were judged according to what they had done. (Revelation 20:13; 22:12)

According…to their own judgments I will judge them. (Ezekiel 7:27)
This concept of "judged as they judge" recurs throughout the Bible — Deuteronomy 19:19; Psalm 7:3-5, 8; 62:12; Proverbs 24:12; Isaiah 3:11; 33:1; Jeremiah 17:10; Ezekiel 36:19; Hosea 12:2; John 5:28-29; Romans 2:6-8; II Corinthians 11:15; Colossians 3:25; James 4:17; I Peter 1:17; Jude 15.

In #104 I argued that the reason why God (if He exists) allows humans to suffer is their "knowledge of good and evil". (Genesis 3:5, 22) This "knowledge" is the subjective feeling everyone has of being right and morally good no matter what they do. Proverbs says: "All deeds are right in the sight of the doer..." (Proverbs 21:2) Such attitude cannot not be refuted by force but by God saying, "Prove it; show me" and then allowing time for consequences to become self-evident. Meanwhile He would need to stay on the sidelines so that people can act without being intimidated by his power.

If God is absent so humans can prove their rightness, then humans become responsible/obligated to do all the good that their independence prevents God from doing. The fairest basis of judgment then becomes the good or the suffering that people brought onto others.

Weight is also given to "hypocrisy" — when people bring conditions upon others that they would not tolerate on themselves: "They tie up heavy burdens, hard to bear, and lay them on the shoulders of others; but they themselves are unwilling to lift a finger to move them." (Matthew 23)

Words are judged also: "I tell you, on the day of judgment you will have to give an account for every careless word you utter; for by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned." (Matthew 12:36-37)

The Bible shows that God deals with humans as individuals — loves them and hears them individually. What would this imply for anyone whose actions, policies or ethics ruined millions of lives?


Mr Straughen (#143) comments on the "vicious tone" of Psalm 109 to argue that Bible writers "created an image of God … colored by their individual … prejudices". From this it follows, says Straughen, that: "hell is most likely a product of the human mind".

Psalm 109 is a cry for justice by someone mistreated and awarded "evil for good". (109:2-3) He condemns the wrongdoer because he: "did not remember to show kindness, but pursued the poor and needy and the brokenhearted to their death." (109:10) The "vicious" part apparently is: "May his children be orphans and his wife a widow. May his children wander about and beg; may they be driven out of the ruins they inhabit…etc"

Ezekiel taught: "A child shall not suffer for the iniquity of a parent, nor a parent suffer for the iniquity of a child…" (18:1-20) Job similarly stated: "You say, 'God stores up their [the wrongdoers'] iniquity for their children.' Let it be paid back to them, so that they may know it. Let their own eyes see their destruction… For what do they care for their household after them…?" (21:19-21)

The "children" condemned in Psalm 109 are not necessarily infants but old enough to have supported or approved their father's evil. Justice back then was scarce, often leaving victims a choice between vengeance or nothing. The victim in Psalm 109, however, has forsworn revenge and leaves retribution to God or to providence. This echoes the New Testament's teaching: "Do not repay evil for evil."


The punishment of "eternal fire" is for the following behaviors:
But as for the cowardly, the faithless, the polluted, the murderers, the fornicators, the sorcerers, the idolaters, and all liars, their place will be in the lake that burns with fire and sulphur, which is the second death. (Revelation 21:8)
This fiery punishment is, in Revelation 14:9-11, called "the wrath of God".

Several of the above listed behaviors, in particular fornication and idolatry, are directly mentioned in Colossians 3:5-6 and Ephesians 5:3-6 where we're told, "On account of these the wrath of God is coming…"

The "wrath of God" also refers to the period we might call the "end of the world" (described in Revelation 6:12-17 and II Peter 3). This is a worldwide repetition of the destruction that fell from the sky upon Sodom and Gomorrah. (II Peter 2:6)

So why are the behaviors listed in Revelation 21:8 so evil that doers of them risk the "lake of fire" if not forgiven? I here venture an opinion:

Humans have the power to achieve anything — nothing will be impossible. (Genesis 11:6) Humans therefore have the power to stop the end of the world. Indeed our independence from God due to our "knowledge of good and evil" puts the onus on us to do so. The above behaviors, however, are so costly, destructive and distracting that humans will be too late in producing the technology to save our planet.

Lies (including their connection to crime), murder (including unjust wars), fornication (a billion sick and 200 million dead in the 20th century), and idolatry (ungodly religion) are behaviors that squander human wealth, time and resources like nothing else. The cumulative cost leaves humans unable to save themselves or their planet.

Judgment upon all who reject God's mercy therefore reflects the value of planet Earth, God's 14 billion-year wait for it to become the great place for life that it is, the suffering of billions of victims since humanity began, and what we did to alleviate that suffering — "If you hold back from rescuing…will he [God] not repay all according to their deeds?" (Proverbs 24:10-12)


Some argue that "eternal fire" symbolizes extinction akin to "nirvana". If correct then unbelievers get what they look forward to, what they'd get if no God existed, indeed what animals get.

"Torment", however, implies consciousness. "Torment" is also emotional, it's not physical torture. I suggest the Bible teaches that people die, this being the "first death", and from this there will be a resurrection. Those who are unsaved will die again — the "second death" — their bodies are killed, annihilated, perhaps by literal fire. What follows would be a body-less existence including separation from God and from everything good that they misused and destroyed.


I have mentioned some principles of judgment relevant to "eternal torment" and the provisions for mercy — so broad they are hard to avoid.

I have not discussed the scientific possibility of eternal life or body-less life — that's a separate topic. I've merely examined the ethics i.e. whether the judgment fits the crime.

What do we find and what's the conclusion after more than 20 years of Bible debate?
It's all on this website: