Laurie EDDIE

All nature is but art unknown to thee;
All chance, direction which thou canst not see;

(Investigatior Magazine 196, 2021 January)

Since the circumstances which led to a belief in omens and divination occurred so long ago, details of their origins and early development are somewhat obscure; nevertheless, what is reasonably certain is that they must have evolved from an pre-existing belief in supernatural beings, a concept which may have came from the erroneous interpretation of certain patterns in the landscape by our very early hominim ancestors.

Visual data from the eyes is processed in the brain to produce recognizable images. Sometimes however, in a process known as Pareidolia, ambiguous patterns, such as are found in tree bark, rock surfaces, or cloud shapes, can be mistakenly "interpreted" as something already known to the observer, e.g. Hamlet comments how clouds can have the appearance of camels, weasels or whales. (Act III, Scene 2), and Socrates observes, "Have you not sometimes seen clouds in the sky like a centaur, a panther, a wolf or a bull?" (Aristophanes, p. 314) Pareidolia can also be auditory, so that, in certain locations, the wind can sound like human whispering or screaming; "Lo, the poor Indian! Whose untutor'd mind Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind." (Pope, 2016, lines 99-100)

It appears possible that, in attempting to understand the natural environment, primitive hominins erroneously identified such images as supramundane spirits, beings which controlled all the forces of nature.

They certainly believed that many of the natural features contained a "life-force," a notion which led to the concept of Animism, (anima, Latin, "spirit" or "vital breath"); as Frazer, (1959) noted,

"To the savage the world in general is animate, and trees and plants are no exception to the rule. He thinks that they have souls like his own, and he treats them accordingly." (p. 74)

In many cultures trees were revered and even worshipped; the Greeks believed they were inhabited by long-lived Dryads, the trees thriving as long as they survived. Romans, Druids and Germans all had sacred groves, and, in many cultures, before removing wood from, or cutting down a tree, prayers were offered, or else, one entreated the tree spirit to depart quietly so the axe would not harm it. When using parts of trees for medicine, Ayurvedic healers, who required the spirit's vital energy to remain, so it could heal the sick patient, would plead, "May thy strength not vanish away. Remain here … After having performed what I will enjoin thee to do, thou will ascend to thy blissful abode in heaven." (Zimmer, p. 106)

Sacred stones, (Baetylus), altars, and idols, (believed to contain a deity's spirit), were common features in many ancient locations, e.g. Jacob's pillar, (Genesis 28:18), Moses' twelve stone pillars, (Exodus 24:4), the Hebrew teraphim, (Genesis 31:19; 1 Samuel 19:13). The Greeks erected Hermes outside temples and homes, to ward off evil, while the Roman lares, protected households. Until quite recently the Saami, (Laplanders), worshiped sieidi), trees and rocks with human or animal appearances. Smaller sieidi, were kept in their tents, and, during their nomadic travels, were transported in their sleds. (Kuokkanen, 2006)

Deception was sometimes used to maintain the illusion that spirits actually inhabited idols. Egyptian priests used a statue, with an inbuilt speaking tube, to "… dupe and control their adherents" (Ziolkowski, 2015, p. 950); similarly, a 2nd century BCE statue of Aphrodite had, " … a speaking tube that leads from the neck down through the body …" (p. 950)

The fact that, by 3.3 million-years BP, hominins had created the earliest known stone tools; (Harmand, et al. 2015), a feat which involved, "… a seminal evolutionary change in the neural structures underpinning perception;" (Morriss-Kay, 2010, p. 158), strongly suggests they had the cognitive ability to conceptualize such abstract concepts as supernatural beings, and, to the primitive mind it must have seemed logical that, if these "supernatural" beings controlled the natural world, they would also be aware of what was to occur in the future. They also seem to have concluded that, if worshipped, these beings might reciprocate by warning of approaching dangers. According to Coulson, Staurset and Walker, (2011), one of the earliest known examples of worship, involved a 6.0 x 2.0 metre, python shaped rock in the Rhino Cave in the Tsodilo Hills of the Kalahari Desert, some 70,000 years BP.


Omens are essentially any spontaneous, or unintentional events, believed by individuals, or groups, to be forewarnings that something good, or bad, was about to occur. While "ominous," (from the Latin ōminosus,), in modern usage, usually refers to a vague, general feeling that something unpleasant is about to happen, in ancient times, omens were perceived as extremely forceful, divine warnings, that something significant was soon to occur in one's life.

Omens can be classified as follows: -

A    Relatively ordinary spontaneous visual, auditory or tactile events; being relatively familiar occurrences, their "meanings" were generally understood.
B    Unusual natural visual or auditory events requiring interpretation by experts, e.g. Comets, Meteors, Meteorological phenomena, Thunder, Lightning, Unusual Animal Behaviour.

Although hominins are normally capable of establishing rational associations between related events, in a process known as Apophenia, connections can sometimes be erroneously perceived between completely unrelated events.

It may be that the concept of omens began when primitive hominins mistakenly concluded that certain chance events in their lives were somehow linked to other random, but completely unrelated incidents, in their lives, since, for them, the concept of randomness was almost completely alien.

For the ancients everything that occurred in the whole Cosmos, no matter how inconsequential, was all part of a finely regulated and predetermined system, directed by inexorable cosmic forces. Thus, for the Egyptians, when Sirius rose above the horizon in mid-August, it was not merely, "… a harbinger of floods," (Nickiforov and Petrova, 2012, p. 54), it was the actual cause of the Nile flooding.

Within this rigid unified system, it was believed, even simple, unusual events, could interfere with the delicately balanced cosmic order. Unusual human, or animal births, (Teratoscopy), were considered particularly threatening, so, when, "… a foal was born with five feet," (Livy, 30:2:10), it threatened the entire Roman world. The birth of human hermaphrodites was considered so menacing that, "… the Athenians threw them into the sea, the Romans, into the Tiber." (Gould and Pyle, 1900, p. 206)

Not all omens were so catastrophic; simple events such as buttoning up clothing incorrectly, putting your left shoe on first, placing a shoe on a table or chair, dropping or losing a glove could all have serious consequences. Sneezing, (Ptarmoscopy), "… was considered a good omen, and was regarded as a sacred sign by nearly all of the ancient peoples." (Gould and Pyle, 1900, p. 813), whereas itching, (Urticariaomancy) could be either a divine omen, or an indication that someone was talking about them.

While Xylomancy predicted one's future from random pieces of wood, twigs or branches, encountered while walking, Apantomancy involved encountering certain types of animals, e.g. if, after leaving home, a black cat crossed one's path, it indicated possible misfortune.

Similarly, Cledonomancy involved chance encounters or events; Ayurvedic practitioners were subject to many negative omens; the quality of the clothes of servants sent by their master, the type of vehicle sent to convey them, and, especially if, while travelling to the patient's home, they encountered women, men with physical disorders, or certain animals.

Formerly sinful and immoral, St. Augustine admitted how, while in Milan, he heard the preaching of Ambrose and, although attracted to Christianity, was convinced he lacked the willpower to change. Then, one day, he heard a child calling out, "Take up and read" - interpreting this as a chance omen, he opened the Codex Porphyrianus and read Romans 13:13, "Let us behave decently, as in the daytime, not in carousing and drunkenness, not in sexual immorality and debauchery, not in dissension and jealousy." Taking this as a propitious omen, (Transataumancy, divination by accidentally seeing or hearing something), he finally converted to Christianity.

Cledonomancy persists in such traditional Scottish practices as First-Footing; the belief that the status of the first male guest to enter one's home after midnight on New Year's Eve, would bring either good or bad luck to the household in the coming year.

It was commonly believed the "voices of nature," the sizzling and crackling of a fire, the sounds of the wind, the rustling and creaking of trees, the behaviour and calls of animals and birds, "… the howl of a dog, the squeaking of mice or their nibbling of clothes, a cat appearing at the window with a captured mouse…" (Schrader, 1911, volume IV, p. 814), were all thought to be harbingers of coming events.

References can be found in the 13th century Kabalistic Zohar to the twittering of birds as omens of impending death, while the interpretation of the calls of Ravens, and the twittering of Wrens, were amongst the primary forms of divination used by the Druid priests in Gaul.

Whereas Storks, Albatrosses, or songbirds calling in flight, were all good omens, birds crashing into a window or flying into the home, the cackling of Ducks or Geese, a Raven's call before leaving on a journey, Crows lingering near a home, Jackdaws chattering louder than normal, Magpies chattering around a house, or flying from west to east, ("contrary to the sun"), the sound of any night bird, or a Rooster crowing during daytime, were all dire omens. Some birds were considered to be "corpse birds", whose appearance was an omen of a coming death,

Birds of omen dark and foul,
Night-crow*, raven, bat, and owl,
Leave the sick man to his dream—
All night long he heard your scream—
(*Any bird that calls in the night. Scott, IV, 2015).

Black birds, such as Crows and Ravens were considered particularly terrifying harbingers of doom; in 203 BCE Romans were greatly alarmed when,
"… crows picked with their beaks some of the gold on the Capitol and actually ate it," (Livy, 30:2:9).

The Owl was also greatly feared by the Romans; according to Pliny,

"The horned owl is especially funereal, and is greatly abhorred in all auspices … the monster of the night … it is looked upon as a direful omen to see it in a city, or even so much as in the day-time" (Natural History, 10.16).

This superstition is mentioned by Shakespeare; on the day preceding Caesar's assassination, an Owl is seen in the marketplace, "hooting and shrieking;" (Julius Caesar, Act 1, scene 3) whilst in Macbeth, (Act 2, Scene 2), the Owl's shriek was the sign that Macbeth was killing the king.

Our word "disaster" is derived from the Greek "dus" = bad, + "aster" = star, and, for the ancients, possibly the most dire omens were the appearance of "signs" in the heavens;

"The meteor, the eclipse and the comet have perhaps created the greatest dread of all, the appearance of a comet being taken as a portent of the coming of the end of the world…" (Omens, p 2064)

To the ancients the heavens were the abode of the gods, and, any unusual events in the sky were attributed to them. For the Greeks, Zeus the Thunderer, was responsible for thunder, lightning, and anything that fell from the sky, "… including meteors, shooting stars" (Papamarinopoulos, et al. 2016, p. 137).

Heavenly omens were particularly significant for the Romans. Several comets and meteors were reported prior to the struggle between Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, and Gaius Julius Caesar for control of Rome. On the morning of August 9th 48 BCE, at Pharsalus in Greece, Pompey was particularly troubled for, on the previous night, a meteor, considered to be an omen of doom, had been seen. It greatly terrified many of his men, and, although Pompey had tried to quell their fears, it may have contributed to their defeat in the ensuing battle.

During the Second Punic War, (218-201 BCE), Rome faced disaster; Hannibal remained undefeated, their harvest failed, resulting in widespread famine, a plague had killed and incapacitated many of their soldiers, and, in 204 BCE, "Two suns were said to have been seen … a meteor was seen to shoot from east to west," (Livy 29:14:3) Apparently an abnormally large meteor shower, it so disturbed the Romans that, "… nine days solemnity of prayer and sacrifice was observed." (Livy 29:14:3)

A desperate Senate consulted the Sibylline Oracles. These "suggested" victory could only be achieved if Rome adopted the worship of the Phrygian mother goddess, Cybele. The King of Pergamum allowed her baetylus, (possibly a black meteorite, believed to possess a protective life-force), to be relocated to Rome. Arriving in Rome on 12th April 204 BCE, it was placed in the temple of Victoria on the Palatine Hill, (Livy 29:14:12); and, from that time the tide of war turned, and Cybele became an honoured Roman deity.

Baetylus were widely worshipped, one was located in the Greek temple at Delphi, while the Black Stone in the eastern corner of the Ka'bah, was once worshipped by the polytheistic pre-Islamic Nabataeans.

On the 12th-13th November, 1833 many Americans were alarmed by what was possibly the greatest meteor shower ever witnessed, and many convinced it was a sign of the Last Judgment, rushed screaming into the streets. The shower, resulting from the Earth passing through comet debris, (possibly Tempel-Tuttle), would later be known as "the night the stars fell." The basis for the 1934 jazz standard, Stars Fell on Alabama, it lasted for over nine hours, with an estimated 75,000 - 100,000 meteors falling each hour.

The location of comets in the sky, their direction of travel, the shape of their tails, and their colour, (white, yellow, blue or green,) all provided specific "omens" warning of such things as the coming of strong winds, extreme heat, droughts, civil unrest and wars.

In 44 BCE, four months after the assassination of Julius Caesar, a comet. Sidus Iulium ("Julian Star" or, Caesaris astrum "Star of Julius Caesar"), appeared. Exceptionally bright, and visible in daylight for seven days, it was proclaimed as a sign that Caesar's soul had been admitted to the pantheon of immortal gods.

In 1066 the appearance of Halley's Comet, described as, "the long-haired star," was seen as an omen of coming disaster, a prophecy many Anglo-Saxons believed was fulfilled when, six months later, they were defeated at the Battle of Hastings, and King Harold II was killed.

Even in relatively modern times comets can still be considered ominous by some. The spectroscopic discovery of Cyanogen, a colourless toxic gas, in the tail of Halley's Comet in 1910, led French astronomer Nicolas Camille Flammarion to predict that, when the Earth passed through the comet's tail, the gas would flood Earth's atmosphere extinguishing all life. This prediction led to panic buying of gas-masks, Comet Pills, (from 25¢ - $1.00 each), and anti-comet umbrellas to protect against debris falling from the comet.


Probably developed after a belief in omens had been established, the art of "divination" involves deliberate attempts to discover "hidden knowledge," especially concerning the future, for groups or individuals. From the Latin divinatio "inspired," and divinus, the ancient belief that the information obtained came from "divine" beings, who, possessed knowledge of the future.

Common suffixes used with various forms of divination are: -

1)    "Mancy" (Greek "manteía" = divination, or prophecy). When first applied in the Middle Ages, it referred primarily to techniques considered to be, "mystical arts";
2)    "Scopy" (Greek "skopia" = observation, scrutiny). When first applied in the Middle Ages, it referred primarily to techniques considered to be, "scientific." (Pope, 2016, lines 289-290)


2(a)    Visual: "Images" actually seen, or information obtained by, and interpreted by an oracle, e.g. Astrology, Clairvoyance, Delusions, Hallucinations, (natural or drug induced), Scrying, Tea-Leaf Reading, Trances.

2(b)    Auditory: Interpretation of sounds by seers, e.g. twittering of birds, rustling of leaves, the sound of the wind.
2(c)    Tactile: Involving touch or balance, e.g. Pendulums, Psychometry.
2(d)    Specialized human interpretation required, e.g. I Ching, Palmistry, Tarot Cards.


3(a)    Casting of lots using devices with two or more dissimilar sides, e.g. leaves, bark, Dice, (Cleromancy), Knucklebones, (Astragalomancy), Urim and Thummim. Thrown down, and since the results were indicated by the surfaces landing upright, no specific interpretation was required;

3(b)    Divination by birds or animals, e.g. roosters pecking at scattered grain, (Alectryomancy), Fortune-Telling Birds, trained to pick random cards from a pack, each with a different prediction. Modern examples include Floppy the kangaroo (Predictaroo), Paul the Octopus, Nelly the Elephant, (both 2010 World Cup), and Achilles the cat, (2018 World Cup).

Inherently insecure, hominins have long sought to alleviate life's uncertainties by seeking knowledge of their future. To cater for their needs Shamans, Prophets, Mediums and Priests emerged; their principal role was to communicate with the deities to "divine" the future for the clan, civic authorities or individuals. Believing cryptic messages were hidden within almost every part of the natural world, they used diverse techniques in what were apparently profitable ventures, "… her priests proclaim rulings for profit, and her prophets read omens for pay." (Micah, 3:11)

For individuals, their personality, and especially their destiny, could be "revealed" by their appearance; the shape of their face, (Physiognomy), the eyes, (Oculomancy), lines on their forehead, (Metoposcopy), body marks, (Moleosophy), spots and blemishes, (Maculomancy), the location, size, and number of moles, (Meilomancy). Since the gods were believed to have created humans "perfect," any unusual skin markings, or disabilities, were believed to be signs of either positive or negative attributes, e.g. "the mark of Cain," (Genesis 4:15), "Guiderius had Upon his neck a mole, a sanguine star, It was a mark of wonder." (Shakespeare, Cymbeline, Act v, Scene 5)

Gastromancy interpreted noises from their intestines, thought to be the "voices" of dead spirits which had possessed them. Stercomancy divined their future from the seeds in bird's excrement, and, while Scatomancy interpreted the appearance of human excrement, ancient Egyptians studied the behaviour of Dung Beetles which, as part of their mating ritual, rolled animal dung into balls.

Myomancy studied the behaviour of rats and mice, and, in particular, personal items they had chewed, which could foretell the possible death of the owner. Omens could be determined from such diverse events as how, cats jumped and alighted, (Ailuromancy). the patterns of mould or holes in cheese, (Tiromancy), and, in Japan, the weather was predicted by kicking a wooden sandal, (Geta), into the air and observing how it landed; (Getamancy).

The study of unusual markings on entrails, (as detailed in special texts), included animal livers, (Aruspicy), fish, (Icthomancy), or humans, (Anthropomancy). Humans had their abdomens cut open, the digestive, respiratory, urogenital organs, the spleen, the heart, and the larger blood vessels then removed and examined for any significant "prophetic" signs.

One form of divination, widely used in ancient Assyria, Babylonian, Egypt, Etruria and Rome was Necromancy; (Greek "nekros" = dead); communicating with ghosts of the dead. Based on a belief that the human spirit survived physical death and became a ghost; now freed of all physical restraints they could travel between the physical and spiritual realms, gaining access to hidden knowledge, especially about future events. Using either body parts, removed from their graves, or a personal possession of the deceased, magic rituals were performed at their grave to communicate with them.

Many divinatory arts were based upon the four classical elements of ancient times, Air, Earth, Fire, and Water, (Stareomancy).

Aeromancy interpreted aerial and meteorological phenomena, e.g. the wind, (Austomancy), cloud shapes, (Nephomancy), thunder and lightning, (Ceraunoscopy), aerial visions, (Chaomancy), Meteors and Shooting Stars, (Meteromancy).

Astrology, claimed to "divine" information concerning human and earthly affairs from the movement of the stars. There were "fixed stars" and "wandering stars," the latter, because of their irregular paths, were known as "planets," ("wanderers"). Although Earth was not regarded as a planet, the unpredictability of events on Earth were attributed to the erratic movements of the "planets."

Geomancy interpreted naturally existing patterns, on the ground, or rocks, (Topomancy), and features, such as lakes, rivers, mountains and how they influenced the environment. Chinese Geomancy, (Feng shui, Feng = wind, + shui = water,), the art of placement, was used to locate auspicious locations for buildings, especially pagodas, shrines, tombs and other buildings, to determine how they would 'interact' with the environment. Geomancy also interpreted shapes formed, when points randomly marked on paper were joined with lines, figures drawn in the ground, and patterns formed by the random scattering of soil or sand thrown from the hand.

Geomantic divination also involved Sortilege, the casting of lots, (Cleromancy); although completely random, the ancients believed the results were divinely influenced, "… the land shall be divided by lot: according to the names of the tribes of their fathers…". (Numbers 26:55). Sortilege involved devices with two or more distinctive sides, e.g. leaves, bark, dice, (Astragalamancy); thrown down, results were indicated by the surfaces which landed upright.

Believed to be a living substance, containing the essence of a deity, Pyromancy, observed how fires burned. It was believed that fires, especially sacrificial bonfires, would reveal the deity's willingness, or otherwise, to accept a sacrifice. A strong, hot fire, with little or no smoke, which quickly consumed the sacrifice, indicated their acceptance, however, one difficult to light, which burned poorly, consumed the sacrifice slowly, was smoky, or crackled excessively, was considered to indicate the deity's displeasure. Other signs were the colour of the rising smoke, and the direction it traveled, (Capnomancy), as well as the appearance of the remaining ashes. Other forms of Pyromancy involved burning incense, (Libranomancy), plants and herbs, (Botanomancy), placing straws on a hot iron and observing the shapes they formed, (Sideromancy), or, throwing substances such as salt into the fire and interpreting the colours of the flames (Alomancy).

Lampadomancy, observed the flames of lamps, torches or candles; a clear, steady flame indicated good fortune, while dark, unsteady flames indicated a coming illness; even worse, the flame suddenly dying, indicated some forthcoming disaster, perhaps even death.

Oracle Bone divination was used extensively during the Chinese Shang dynasty, (1523-1027 BCE). Originally bones were touched with red-hot bronze rods, causing the bones to fracture, the cracks then being interpreted by scholars. In later versions, the bones were first inscribed with characters dedicating them to the emperor, or to ancestors, along with questions on such topics as ceremonial observances in religious and court matters, or the conduct of military expeditions.

Bone divination also included one form of Cephalonomancy, where carbon was burned on the head of an donkey or goat while reciting certain phrases, particularly the names of suspected criminals. Any cracking of the skull, or movement of the jaws, while a particular name was spoken indicated guilt. Also used were the shoulder blades of sheep or oxen, (Scapulimancy), or turtle plastrons, (Plastromancy). Cleaned thoroughly, then, inscribed with questions, these bones were placed on glowing coals, and indications of future events being determined from the manner in which they  cracked and changed colour.

Hydromancy, (Greek "hudro" = water), while one version interpreted ripples formed when precious stones were dropped into a basin of water, most forms involved a seer gazing fixedly into a cup or basin containing water, (Lecanomancy), rainwater, (Hydatomancy), sacred spring-water, (Pegomancy), wine, pools of ink, or objects with a shiny or translucent surface, such as gemstones, (Lithomancy), crystals, (Crystallomancy), mirrors, (Catoptromancy), metal cups, or sword blades. Many practitioners used their own special cups, e.g. "Isn't this the cup my master drinks from and also uses for divination?" (Genesis 44:5).

In the past, to locate a thief in Tahiti, a diviner would fill a calabash with clear water, then, gazing into the water, they could always see, "… the face of the thief reflected..." (Turnbull, 1805, p. 36). A related practice, which continued into 20th century Britain, was to place a sixpence in the bottom of a glass of water and have the seer gaze intently at the image until they entered a trance. (De Givry, 1973, p. 307). These intense gazing techniques strongly suggest the seers entered a form of self-hypnotic trance, for, as Kroger (1977) indicated, an individual's ability to concentrate, and stare fixedly into liquids, or reflective surfaces, is an important factor in achieving hypnotic trance states, (p. 45).

Other hydromancy techniques involved "magical texts;" written inside the cup, so that when a liquid was added, it dissolved and "absorbed" their magical properties. When, in 1993, 5,000 ringgit, (about $2,500), went missing from a Malaysian bank, and a body search failed to find the thief, the manager ordered all the staff to drink "magic water." Prepared by a local witch doctor, he believed it would make the thief sick; the liquid failed, and, after complaints to the National Union of Bank Employees, the manager was forced to apologize to staff. (Sieveking, 1995)

Dreams were believed to be "divine messages," often foretelling future events, and so Oneiromancy, (dream interpretation), was an important form of ancient divination, Many believed their gods spoke directly to their prophets via dreams; "When there is a prophet among you, … I speak to them in dreams." (Numbers 12:6)

Since the meanings of dreams was often vague, priests, in Babylon, Bârû or "seers;" in Egypt, the Learned Men of the Magic Library, and, in Greece, soothsayers or Oneiromancers, were consulted to interpret their meanings. Many ancient temples provided a service known as Incubatory Sleep where supplicants could consult with Oneiromancers. After special ceremonies, they would retire to sleep in a special room, then, the following morning, would relate their dreams to the priest who would interpret it with reference to their original query.

Throughout history dream divination has been particularly popular with young unmarried girls who used diverse procedures to produce visionary dreams relating to potential sweethearts, who they would marry, whether they would have a good or bad marriage, and the number of children they would bear.

They told her how, upon St. Agnes Eve,
Young girls might have visions of delight,
And soft adorings from their loves receive
Upon the honey'd middle of the night,
If ceremonies due they did right.
(Keats, 1884, The Eve of St. Agnes. Verse VI)

Although modern Homo sapiens has a much more sophisticated and scientific understanding of the natural world, they still retain many of the basic insecurities of our earliest hominin ancestors, and many still rely on various forms of prognostication to alleviate their fears of the future. As shown in Table 1 many Americans, from both religious and non-religious backgrounds, still believe in Astrology, Psychics and Spiritual Energies.

Table 1:
New Age' beliefs common among both religious and nonreligious Americans
 Survey conducted 4th-18th December, 2017 amongst U.S. adults Gecewicz, (2018)

Believe in Astrology Believe in Psychics Believe Spiritual energy can
be detected in physical objects
Overall 28.5% 40.5% 41.5%
Men 20% 34% 37%
Women 37% 47% 46%
Atheist 3% 10% 13%
Agnostic 18% 31% 40%
College Graduate 22% 34% 38%


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