UFO's, Outer and Inner Space:
A Jungian Perspective
(Investigator 64, 1999 January)
Speculation about the true nature of UFOs — their existence as a
physical 'actuality' and/or psychological 'virtuality' — has divided
the scientific community and the general public alike into two groups:
believers and sceptics. Such a quandary makes the UFO debate (and the
related phenomenon of extraterrestrial intelligence) something of an
There are two ways we can approach this issue and perhaps, in some way,
shed light on the vague and nebulous subject that is the phenomenon of
the UFO. In terms of pure, empirical experience, we can consider the
'facts' from both an 'outer' world perspective, and an 'inner' world
perspective. It will be seen that both approaches, while embodying
their own distinct phenomenologies, ultimately possess a similar kind
of meaningfulness to the human subject which, for our purposes, may
well be the most important factor for consideration in the whole
enterprise of inquiry into the mystery of the Unidentified Flying
Definitions here added by the editor. Taken from: Penguin Dictionary of Psychology (1985)
A philosophical doctrine that advocates the scientific study of immediate experience be the basis of psychology...
Note that there is no attempt here to deny the objective reality of
events; rather, the basic issue for a phenomenological analysis is to
avoid focusing upon the physical events themselves and instead to deal
with how they are perceived and experienced. Real meaning for a
phenomenologist is to be derived by examining the individual's
relationship with and reactions to these real-world events...
1. The early Greeks envisioned the psyche as the soul or the very essence of life.
2. More conventionally, the connotation is limited to mind.
1. Generally, an original model, the first formed, the primordial type.
2. In Jung's characterization of the psyche, the inherited, unconscious ideas and images that are the components of the collective unconscious.
Although he hypothesized the existence of many archtypes, several were
presumed to have evolved sufficiently to be treated as distinct
1. In Jung's approach, one of the archtypes; a complex of undeveloped
feelings, ideas, desires and the like — "animal" instincts passed
along through evolution to Homo sapiens from lower, more primitive forms that represent the more primitive side of personality; the "alter ego."
A mystic symbol of the cosmos generally of circular form with
representations of deities arranged symmetrically around it. Used
chiefly in Hinduism and Buddhism as an aid to meditation... In Jungian
theory it the symbolic representation of the striving for unity of the
Latin for what comes before. Reasoning
developed deductively as, for example, a hypothesis formed on the basis
of definitions previously formed or principles previously assumed.
UFOs: The Outer Experience
The first sighting of a UFO — actually a 'flying saucer' (a term
coined in 1947 by the US media) — was by private pilot Kenneth Arnold,
who saw "a group of glowing objects that he described as shaped like
saucers while flying in Washington State" . Since then, UFO
sightings have occurred ceaselessly in many nations across the globe.
Numerous investigations have been launched by the armed forces (usually
the airforce), scientific communities, and government agencies
(especially the CIA and FBI in the United States).
Over the decades, denial by these authorities of the existence of UFO
phenomena, allegations of conspiracy theories, and 'cover-ups' have all
been common , becoming the subject matter of television and film
fiction and documentary. The possibility of Extraterrestrials (ETs)
attempting communication (a related UFO phenomenon, since our current
technology precludes the possibility of inter-stellar travel) is also a
contentious issue, with mathematical "proofs" of the existence of
planets with communicable species being either not very promising (only
one planet, Earth!, in our Milky Way galaxy), or very optimistic (at
least a million planets in our galaxy alone) .
In the 1970s, the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft were sent out to tour our Solar and beyond.
Accompanying each probe was a plaque co-designed by the late Carl Sagan
(Figure 1).The plaque indicates our size (in comparison to the
Pioneer), our position in the Solar System, and the time of the probe
launches by use of the frequency rates of fourteen pulsars (radio wave
stars) which change over time. Outside of religious practices, this is
the first time in the history of humankind that an attempt at
communication with "other worlds" using anything material had been
undertaken. The plaque is not only a statement of who we are, but is a
'letter' to a would-be friend and an invitation for contact.
De Vito  considers the possibility of a language for communication
based on the universals of natural numbers (1, 2, 3, . . . and so on),
and the physical properties of the elements (Hydrogen, Carbon, Iron,
etc.) However, he asks, "can we be sure that an alien would interpret a
picture in the way that we intend?" Furthermore, the Search for
Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) — an ongoing operation — involves
the expenditure of hundreds of millions of dollars for any one project,
with the potential to jump up to hundreds of billions in the next
century if SETI telescopes need to be built on the dark side of the
Moon to avoid ever-increasing, disruptive 'noise' created by our
broadcasting and navigation satellites . So far, having broadcast to
hundreds of starsystems since1974 (from the Arecibo telescope, Puerto
Rico, and elsewhere) the results have not been encouraging,
particularly in consideration of the kind of money being spent .
Sagan wonders "why UFOs are never sighted over large cities by hordes
of people" . Since sightings first began, the UFO encounter — also
the subject of many 1950s Hollywood sci-fi movies (good and bad) — has
been a distinctly individual experience, with few exceptions, followed
by either complete credulity, or complete scepticism from the general
populace, in the real life accounts, and in the movie versions of these
UFO encounters. Jung posits the UFO experience as necessarily unique:
the individual is always at the centre of his or her experience, since
experience starts in the individual psyche .
It is also in the individual psyche where the imagination is exercised.
The film genre of science fiction well compensates (emotionally and
intellectually) the greater majority who are not as privileged as the
scientists, astrophysicists and astronomers working directly in the
field of SETI and UFO investigation. Since a great deal of living is
done vicariously, the cinema allows the realisation of our speculative
notions through the reality of the moving picture. Realism in cinema (a
movement which re-surfaces occasionally in the fine arts) is heightened
by the latest techniques in film-making and special effects, as well as
psychologically and visually realistic (real life) themes. Since the
industry has had many decades to 'get it right' (in front of the camera
and behind the scenes), the 'sci-fi' screen-writer can now concentrate
on similar 1950s issues, but with the help of Hollywood 'hi-tech'
grandiosity, so that the bolder issues of humanity's
late-twentieth-century dilemmas are intensified. Four films, The Day The Earth Stood Still (1952), and Earth vs. The Flying Saucers (1956), and the more recent Independence Day (1996), and Mars Attacks (1996), show the differences and similarities in film-making — then and now.
The Day The Earth Stood Still is resolute in tone and its cinema noir
mood and firm, black & white message is clear: a saviour is needed
to rescue a floundering world gripped by post-war nuclear threat,
escalating war, and world famine. As Jung had emphasised in 1958:
suddenly they [the
UFOs] seem to portend something has been projected on them — a hope, an
expectation. What sort of expectation you can see from the literature
[and film genres]: it is of course the expectation of a saviour .
The hero, Klaatu (alias Mr. Carpenter) is none other than the humble
Nazarene carpenter's son, newly 'resurrected' and bearing a
crystal-clear warning for a 1950s style of consciousness: "Discipline
yourselves or be destroyed!"
The malevolent robots in Earth vs. The Flying Saucers
are not at all interested in human welfare, salvation or preservation
over their own (the robots are actually robotic suits, inside which are
the decrepit forms of an ancient race from a dying planet — hence their
need to invade Earth). Human intelligence is matched against the
intelligence and animosity of these advanced aliens, and
fortunately it is discovered that their saucers' gyroscopic systems are
vulnerable to the high frequency generated by a weapon invented by the
scientist Dr. Russell Marvin.
Invasion and destruction are common themes in sci-fi films, and Independence Day and Mars Attacks
both feature these themes, but with rather different approaches. In
Independence Day we get world destruction in 'full-colour,' but the
skies have darkened somewhat. The darkness comes from the shadows of
huge flying saucers over fifteen miles in diameter. Shadows cast by
saucers of such scale are highly symbolic. Edinger comments on a
similar motif manifested as a dream image of a "great black ring"
hurtling through the air, representing the "collective phenomenon" of
the "birth of the dark Self," known collectively, in Jungian terms, as
the 'Shadow' side of humanity . The many and varied pursuits of
humankind: massive technological advances, and controversial
environmental, economic, and political changes of global and
undoubtedly negative impact, in spite of the so-called positive
benefits promised to an unsuspecting world, have all taken their toll
on humanity. Facing us now, as in the 1950s, is the threat of being
"crushed by ... the Juggernaut[s]."
The Martians in Mars Attacks pick up on the same programme as the aliens in Independence Day
— 'seek out the intelligent life and destroy it'. Psychologically, the
Martians are familiar, and for good reason. They are skeletal
underneath (like us): they are our own inner demons. This time, out of
our psychological naiivete, our own 'other-worldly' (unconscious) and
martial (warlike) renegadism and unconscionable neglect is destroying
us as the belligerent Martian 'gremlins' obliterate all those who cross
their path — wholesale slaughter executed remorselessly and
vindictively. Of interest is the fact that in Independence Day,
destruction of the aliens is assured indirectly by the introduction of
a computer virus into the defence systems of the alien saucers, which
renders them vulnerable to attack by nuclear warheads from Earth.
In Mars Attacks, the Martians
are (quite humorously) fatally vulnerable to the high-pitched yodeling
of Country-and-Western singer Slim Whitman. These methods of defence
recall the means by which Dr.Marvin saved the world in Earth vs. The Flying Saucers.
Psychologically speaking, the suggestion is that while it is our human
intelligence which saves us, it is our intellectual attitude that
caused the problems in the first place. That is, malevolent aliens are
the personifications of the dark Self — specifically the Shadow
archetype of which Jung speaks:
Closer examination of
the dark characteristics — that is, the inferiorities constituting the
shadow reveals that they have ... a kind of autonomy, and accordingly
an obsessive or, better, possessive quality .
And Jung again: "the monsters of modern "horror" films are distorted
versions of archetypes that will no longer be repressed" . The
painful truth of Mars Attacks
is cleverly ameliorated by the good-humour sustained throughout the
film. Such is the versatility of the art of film-making. Nietzsche's
lines from "The Birth of Tragedy" are expressly appropriate here:
the truly serious task
of art [is] to save the eye from gazing into the horrors of night and
to deliver the subject by the healing balm of illusion from the spasms
of the agitations of the will .
While the world of science fiction continues its parade of both
hard-edged and fanciful truths, the stranger truth of real world facts
also maintains its exposure through the popular press, book-stores, and
magazine stands. From January 1981 to April 1982 almost every edition
of a newly-released publication, OMEGA Science Digest,
featured an article on UFOs. as well as the related subject of ETI
(extraterrestrial intelligence) . Two important points are
suggested by all these articles the first point is that the frequency
of material on these subjects is consistently high, and the other is
that the level of serious inquiry into the 'true' nature of UFOs is
also consistently high — both of which are a direct reflection of the
scientific and public interest in these phenomena. Hyneck claims a
staggering 57% of US citizens believe in UFOs as something real .
But what does 'real' mean to the majority of people? From a purely pragmatic point of view, real means the directly observable.
At this point, 'the observable' becomes the operative word for such
phenomena, so that recourse to psychological insight begins to look
like a viable, alternative source of explanation for the UFO encounter.
This is because firstly, we are still waiting for convincing evidence
(a 'close encounter of the third kind' involving a large population and
well-documented proof), and secondly, seeing is not always believing
(we might need the confirmatory evidence of our other senses before we
can begin to accept the psychologically real as physically real). Until
then we must accept all possible explanations for the UFO phenomenon.
The fact and the fiction of UFOs and ETs, the outer reality of this
world (and our actions in it) and the notion of an 'other world' are
constantly with us. The representations of the events in outer space,
while constantly changing, are fundamentally unitary and fired in
nature and form, and are shown to be connected with another reality:
that of the 'inner' world. This other reality also awaits our
UFOs: The Inner Experience
Psychology is one of the few disciplines which has managed successfully
to situate itself between the Arts and the Sciences. In the field,
solutions to questions are often prefaced by a consideration of inner
(mental, emotional. 'spiritual') and/or outer (physical, behavioural,
material) factors. Events, circumstances, experiences and behaviours
may have to submit to the rigours of two, sometimes antithetical. but
not irreconcilable discourses — either, experimentation, statistical
analyses and interpretation (descriptive and inferential) may be used
(where possible), on one hand, and/or contemplative, introspective and
cognitive approaches of a more philosophical and imaginative quality
may be needed, on the other. In this regard, the UFO phenomenon is no
less an ambiguity, as far as approach to interpretation (explanation?)
While it is easy to posit an explanation for UFO sightings/encounters
as due to some form of psychological disorder (hallucination, delusion,
etc.), a deeper consideration of the facts using psychodynamic theories
may yield more pertinent information. For example, it has long been
held amongst those working in the field of the psyche that the unknown
provides a suitable hook for the projections of an individual's
unconscious contents (a defense mechanism which relieves anxiety and
allays self-knowledge of a harmful kind, thereby vesting the external
world of objects with anthropomorphic or symbolic qualities not
necessarily phenomenal to those objects). As Jung explains:
manifestations of the unconscious, even in normal people, which can be
so "real" and impressive that the observer instinctively resists taking
his perception as a delusion or hallucination. His instinct is right:
when an inner process cannot be integrated it is often projected
In relation to projection, Davies states, "[i]n many early cultures,
the sky was the domain of the gods, and the organisation of the cosmos
reflected the metaphysical workings of the supernatural" [l7]. Speaking
of the twentieth century, Jung puts Davies' observation into
In the threatening
situation of the world today, when people are beginning to see that
everything is at stake, the projection-creating fantasy soars beyond
the realm of the earthly organisation and powers into the heavens, into
interstellar space, where the rulers of human fate, the gods, once had
their abode in the planets .
So today we might argue, psychologically, that the supernatural has its
roots in ourselves: in the psyche to be specific. But in our causal
world we might ask of the specific nature and cause of this
"threatening situation" which creates such projections. Jung suggests
that "collective distress or danger,"  is the prime cause for
'sightings' of UFOs and subsequent hysteria. Just after World War II
and since then, this distress was promulgated by 'Cold War' relations
with Russia, and the general cultural condition of an
over-industrialised western mass-consumerism, where the soul of the
modern materialistic individual was in serious "psychic dissociation."
If something is out there, it is fair to make the equally valid
assumption that 'out there' may well mean 'in the psyche' — after all,
since Plato's Cave analogy of 2500 years ago, Kant's critical idealism
of the eighteenth century, and the philosophical and social criticisms
of science in this century, it has been well accepted throughout the
ages up to the present day (though not by a majority) that the sensory
data of our experience (sights, sounds, sensations, etc.) are all the
average person has to work with, and after considerable ratiocination,
intuition, thought, and evaluation, our 'processed' sensory data must,
for the most part, be taken as a construction, pre-determined by
cultural and historical factors. The 'outer' experience may well be a
projected topos of space and
object (including the UFO event) constructed of inner processes. Space
then becomes a complicated and multi-factorial issue with a need for
clear-cut categories. But what is space?
We know that what is seen requires a space for the object to be in
(this assumption does not require the acceptance, nor valid application
of the optical realities of light and the laws of physics — for
example, such laws are constantly violated in the dream state). The
postmodern approach of Post-Structuralism has seen the deconstruction
of binary or dualistic philosophical 'realities.' Cartesian
antithetical relationships, while still functional and relevant, often
create a blind to less reductive, more holistic interpretations of our
phenomenal world. By marginalising the mind/body discourse, for
example, we can equally see ourselves as personalities contingent with,
and occupying the immediate space of the body', which is an extension
of the external, 'outer' space of matter. Such binary forms as
environment/heredity ('nurture/nature'), mind/body, spirit/matter can
all be stripped of their dualistic resonances, so that the Platonic
human soul, the essence of being, is seen as merely "another aspect of
matter," Jung echoes this point:
psychic events are
facts, are realities, and when you observe the stream of images within,
you observe an aspect of the world, of the world within. Because the
psyche, if you understand it as a phenomenon occurring in living
bodies, is a quality of matter, just as our body consists of matter....
It is just as though you were seeing into another aspect of matter .
So saying, we can see ourselves as identical with matter, but, being
incomplete in our knowledge of matter, we are necessarily incomplete in
the knowledge of ourselves. This assumption explains (in part) the
naive alchemist's search for the (philosophical) gold, the 'tincture',
the 'elixir of life', the lapis
(stone) in the vessel or flask. The alchemist was a victim of his own
projections, and the space of matter became conflated with psychic
space — the alchemist's search was a worthy, but fruitless venture,
being in the wrong direction. Hence the need for a clear demarcation
between spaces, even after having just equated psyche with matter. This
paradox is resolved when it is realised that the word 'space' is
context-bound with specific purposes and meanings conveyed only through
Therefore, some thinkers (including those of a Jungian persuasion) are
of the opinion that the postulate of the existence of other spaces is a
valid one. Some examples of space are:
(i) the outer, external space of our world and the things in it,
(ii) the bio-chemical space of the material brain (its neurons and neuronal activity) — this space could be included in (i),
(iii) the metaphysical or dogmatic space of the philosophers and theologians,
(iv) the space of the psyche.
The last example, the space of the psyche, is a moot point for some
critics, who explain it away in biological or philosophical terms. But
Edinger deems lack of experience as the prime cause of the ignorance of
[the psyche] is a
separate world of being and the only reason attempts are made to
explain it in terms of bio-chemistry or metaphysics is because the
explainers who make the attempt are not aware of the existence, the
reality, of the psyche as a separate world of being .
Jung's relativisation of psyche and matter, seems to conflict with
Edinger's statement, until we recognize that Edinger's understanding of
a plural concept of space (which must acknowledge the psyche) is a
necessary discursive construct for maintaining the integrity of the
psychic events which take place in psychic space. In fact, elsewhere
Jung supports this notion. To reduce the numinosum
to mere formulae or neural activity in the brain is to strip a
profoundly human experience of its meaningfulness, and serves to
relegate human functioning to mechanistic, biochemical and
hydro-dynamic causes. As Jung states:
anything that cannot be
exploited in someway is uninteresting — hence the devaluation of the
psyche. In recent times this traditional error has been made even worse
by an allegedly biological view which sees man [sic]
as being no further advanced than a herd animal and fails to understand
any of his motivations outside the categories of hunger, power, and sex
Recognising the value of the psyche in its own right, and its symbolic
use of space and object, Jung draws attention to a kind of
'synchronistic' relationship between flying saucers and his patients
dreams, drawings and paintings . For example, he tells of a certain
"Miss X" — a 55 year old, well-educated, American woman who was
unmarried, but secretly wanted marriage and children, and "had reached
her limit and got stuck" . During therapy with Jung she was
inspired to paint a series of mandala forms. Two such floating mandalas
hovering over New York and Manhattan, respectively (although rather
floral and ornate) recall the scenario of flying saucers hovering over
city scapes as seen in the films mentioned above. As represented in the
mandalas, Miss X came to realize in her life a "consolidation" of the
totality or wholeness of her Self against disintegrating external
influences (social, cultural, etc.) This interpretation becomes clearer
when we consider Jung's understanding of the historical, mythological,
and psychological nature of the 'UFO' form.
In Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Sky , Jung asks three fundamental questions in relation to flying saucers:
(i) "Are they real or are they mere fantasy products?"
(ii) "If they are real, exactly what are they?"
(iii) "If they are fantasy, why should such a rumour exist?"
From Jung's assumption that there are two types of reality — the
physically real and the psychically real — both of which may have the
same degree of emotional effect and meaningfulness to the experient,
and notwithstanding the possible, extra-terrestrial reality of UFOs and
ETs, these questions may be reworked and condensed into the single,
perhaps more pertinent question, "What is the nature of the
meaningfulness gained from UFOs (and other usually round objects) which
causes such emotional effects in individuals?" This question is
answered when we consider our mythic past and relate this to our
current era in terms of 'inner' need.
Jung sees the origins of a "living myth" developing in our own time, where the sighting of mainly round objects harkens back to the ancient archetypal form of the circle, or mandala (Sanskrit: mandala = disc or circle). The archetype
is like the Platonic Form or Idea, but in fact provides the empirical
(biological) under-pinning for the existence in the psyche of such
Forms or Ideas, and is given as an a priori
construct of the human psyche — its function is homeostatic . The
circle is none other than the "protective" or apotropaic
('evil-averting') circle, "whether in the form of the prehistoric "sun
wheel" ... or a modern symbol of order, which organises and encloses
the psychic totality" .
Circular symbolism, as stated, has historical antecedents. In ancient Egypt the Sky-Mother Nut,
curved over a circular world: in 1566, in Basel, Switzerland, Samuel
Coccius saw "many large black globes ... moving before the sun with
great speed"; and a few years earlier in 1561, in Nuremberg, Germany, a
number of people reported seeing "globes", and "plates" and "crosses"
near the sun . Plato likened the soul to a sphere (the
three-dimensional version of the two-dimensional circle), while the
alchemistic winged sphere or the rotundum
(Latin: rotundum = 'round thing') both expressed an "involuntary
archetypal or mythological conception of an unconscious content)" —
effectively the individual's total personality which extends beyond the
ego complex .
Circles have been used to symbolise gods and God, "who is a circle
whose centre is everywhere and the circumference nowhere" . Circles
have also symbolised the Sun, and Heaven and the Earth, partly by
observation, and partly by projection. In all these cases the circle is
maintained as the sub-structure of the particular socially, culturally,
and historically determined representations of the psychic totality,
whether in the form of the mandala, or world sphere, or the heavens. To
satisfy our twentieth-century mindset, we expect the 'heavenly'
(spiritual) circular form to conform to a rational, space-age
consciousness, where "things seen in the sky" must have power systems
born of a technology beyond earthly expectations.
The totality of the circle further relates to the phenomenology of the
Self (specifically the wholeness of the Self, by which is meant not
just the ego, but consciousness and the unconscious). Through inner
experiences beyond the ego, therefore, it can be seen that the Self is
in constant communication with the ego. It is remarkable just how
frequently circle symbolism occurs in the inner life of many people —
especially those experiencing certain forms of psychic disorientation
of disturbance. Jung gives an account of an educated woman who
dreamed of a UFO encounter . She was with a friend "standing on the
edge of the world seeking." In the sky were the crescent moon, the
morning star, the rising Sun, and an "elliptical, silvery object" with
people on its rim ("all men dressed in silvery white"). The
women were awe-struck and trembled where they stood. The woman's
friend, ill and fearful of death, was in an anxious state at the time
of the dream. The UFO and its crew of men (a ship of the dead and its
'spirits') hung above her consciousness as the connecting link between
her ego and the greater unknown. Her friend died two years later (the
dream was premonitory).
Although the UFO symbolises a "ship of death" in the above-mentioned
case, the circular form can have a positive aspect. An example of
circular symbolism (a mandala form) comes from a seven year old boy who
was the "offspring of a problem marriage" . He hung circular
drawings around his bed and "called them his "loves" and would not go
to sleep without them." The "magical" pictures acted as protective,
apotropaic circles. An answer to the question of meaningfulness now
becomes clear. The boy's drawings reveal the numinous presence of
wholeness within his psychic structure, which he sought in the
symbolism of his images: the emotional effect is given in their
numinosity, and the reality of a greater power (in the psyche) is an
indestructible value to the boy. It is clear then that the total
personality is a goal or a process of continual revelation in the
person. Its futurity seems a certainty, since the unconscious has
relatively absolute, but usually inaccessible knowledge of the
individual's life-experience, and the resources for healing. Dick's
opinion on UFOs aligns with these observations: the "real nature [of
the UFOs] is most probably to be found in the human mind rather than in
an objective (much less an extraterrestrial) reality" .
As psychic projections appropriate to a technological age in which
anything religious is just not convincing anymore, the UFO stands, in
its symbolic guise, as an irrefutable fact that the total personality
(if it looks like anything) looks like a circle, or sphere. This
circular (mandala) form has numinous healing, or restorative power, of
which only the experient can speak. This numinosity has an aspect which
is transcendent in nature (that is, beyond consciousness), extending
beyond the realm of the mundane, earthly life, and can be
life-enhancing and meaningful.
The variety of shapes of spacecraft reported by eye-witnesses compares
favourably with the madalas drawn by Jung's patients. Here, in these
mandala images, we get a glimpse of a "world within." While the
possibility of UFOs and ETs is not denied, nor yet proven, it is an
unquestionable fact that within the human soul (for want of a better
word) is the image of both these phenomena: they stand for some higher,
more 'advanced' representation of 'truth,' of which we are only
beginning to discover is the human psyche.
References and Notes
l. Ian Ridpath, Signs of Life (Bungay, Suffolk: Richard Clay/The Chaucer press. 1977).
2. Paris Flammonde, UFO Exist! (New York: Ballantine Books, 1976);
Donald Goldsmith & Tobias Owen, The Search for Life in the Universe (Menlo Park, CA.: Benjamin/Cummings, 1980);
Patrick Huyghe, "Scientists Who Have Seen UFOs, OMEGA, Mar/Apr. 1982; pp. 94-99, pp. 120-12l; and
Jacques Vallee, UFOs: The Psychic Solution (Aylesbury, Bucks: Panther, 1977).
3. John D. Barrow, & Frank J. Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle (New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990);
Hanbury Brown, Man and the Stars (Oxford: Oxford University press, l978); and
Carl Sagan, Other Worlds (New York: Bantam Books, l975).
4. Carl L. De Vito, "Languages, Science and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence" Leonardo 25 No. 1 (I992) pp. l3-16.
5. Nigel Henbest, "SETI: The Search Continues," New Scientist 36 No.1842 (1992) pp.12-13.
6. Henbest  and Sagan [3J.
7. Sagan 
8. C. G. Jung, Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Sky (London: Routledge and Keegan Paul,1977b).
9. C. G. Jung, C. G. Jung Speaking: Interviews and Encounters (Princeton, N. J. Princeton University Press, 1977a).
10. Edward Edinger. The Creation of Consciousness (Toronto: Inner City, I984).
11. C. G. Jung, Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self (New York: Princeton University Press. 1978 ).
12. C. G. Jung, Man and His Symbols (New York: Anchor, 1964).
13. Friedrich Nietzsche, "The Birth of Tragedy, in Basic Writings of Nietzsche (New York: Modern Library, 1968) p. 1l8.
14. Articles from OMEGA Science Digest:
Jan/Feb l98l: Leading Investigator of UFO reports. John Pinkney, stated
that over 80% of American astronomers surveyed in 1977 considered UFOs
as a worthy subject of investigation. John Pinkney, "The UFO Debate: A
Statement in Self Defense" OMEGA Jan/Feb. (l98l) pp. l6-17;
Mar/Apr 1981: Scientist, Dr. Robert Jastrow showed statistically that not only is there a high a priori
probability for the existence of extraterrestrial life, but that alien
life forms would be so technologically advanced that space travel would
be possible — even over distances of 4.3 light-years (the distance to
our nearest neighbours in the triple star system ALPHA CENTAURI).
Robert Jastrow, "The UFO Debate Goes ON" OMEGA Mar/Apr (1981) pp 115;
Sept/Oct: Project Blue Book advisor, Dr. J. Allen Hyneck, Dr. Bruce S.
Maccabee (Navy physicist), and NASA research scientist, Dr. Richard E.
Haines all endorse the investigation of UFO reporting and acknowledge
the reality of Air-Force, CIA, FBI, and US Government reluctance to
discuss the issue, and their denial of any conclusive proof or
existence of UFOs.
Quenton Fogarty, "The UFO Phenomenon Just Does Not Go Away", OMEGA Sept/Oct. (l98l) pp. 18-21, pp. 116-17; Nov/Dec l98l: UFOs are explained as either ET spacecraft or Time Machines.
Damien Broderick, "What if..." OMEGA Nov/Dec. (1981) pp. 58-62;
Mar/Apr 1982: Ignoring the hoaxes and natural explanations for UFO
phenomena (hallucinations, temperature inversions), many reports
(including those made by meteorologists, geologists and nuclear
engineers) remain unexplained. Huyghe .
15. Fogarty .
16. Jung .
17. Paul Davies. The Edge of Infinity: Beyond the Black Hole (London: Penguin, 1994).
18. Jung .
19. Jung .
20. Jung .
21. Edward Edinger, The Mysterium Lectures (Toronto: Inner City, 1995).
22. C. G. Jung, The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (Princeton. N. J.: Princeton University Press. 1990).
23. Jung .
24. Jung .
25. Jung .
26, Jolande Jacobi, Complex/Archetype/Symbol in the Psychology of C. G. Jung (New. York: Princeton University Press, 1974).
27. Jung .
28. Jung .
29. Jung .
30. Jung .
31. June [81.
32. Jung .
33. Steven J. Dick, "Other Worlds: The Cultural Significance of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate," Leonardo 29 No. 2 (1996) pp. 133-37.