UFO's, Outer and Inner Space:
A Jungian Perspective

Lance Storm

(Investigator 64, 1999 January)


Speculation about the true nature of UFOs — their existence as a physical 'actuality' and/or psychological 'virtuality' — has divided the scientific community and the general public alike into two groups: believers and sceptics. Such a quandary makes the UFO debate (and the related phenomenon of extraterrestrial intelligence) something of an intellectual minefield.

There are two ways we can approach this issue and perhaps, in some way, shed light on the vague and nebulous subject that is the phenomenon of the UFO. In terms of pure, empirical experience, we can consider the 'facts' from both an 'outer' world perspective, and an 'inner' world perspective. It will be seen that both approaches, while embodying their own distinct phenomenologies, ultimately possess a similar kind of meaningfulness to the human subject which, for our purposes, may well be the most important factor for consideration in the whole enterprise of inquiry into the mystery of the Unidentified Flying Object.



Definitions here added by the editor.  Taken from:  Penguin Dictionary of Psychology (1985)

Phenomenology:
A philosophical doctrine that advocates the scientific study of immediate experience be the basis of psychology...
Note that there is no attempt here to deny the objective reality of events; rather, the basic issue for a phenomenological analysis is to avoid focusing upon the physical events themselves and instead to deal with how they are perceived  and experienced. Real meaning for a phenomenologist  is to be derived by examining the individual's relationship with and reactions to these real-world events...

Psyche:
1. The early Greeks envisioned the psyche as the soul or the very essence of life. 
2. More conventionally, the connotation is limited to mind.

Archetype:
1. Generally, an original model, the first formed, the primordial type.
2. In Jung's characterization of the psyche, the inherited, unconscious ideas and images that are the components of the collective unconscious. Although he hypothesized the existence of many archtypes, several  were presumed  to have evolved sufficiently  to be treated as  distinct systems...

Shadow:
1. In Jung's approach, one of the archtypes; a complex of undeveloped feelings, ideas, desires and the  like — "animal" instincts passed along through evolution to Homo sapiens from lower, more primitive forms that represent the more primitive side of personality; the "alter ego."

Mandala:
A mystic symbol of the cosmos generally of circular form with representations of deities arranged symmetrically around it. Used chiefly in Hinduism and Buddhism as an aid to meditation...  In Jungian theory it the symbolic representation of the striving for unity of the self.

A Priori:
Latin for what comes before. Reasoning developed deductively as, for example, a hypothesis formed on the basis of definitions previously formed or principles previously assumed.


UFOs: The Outer Experience

The first sighting of a UFO —  actually a 'flying saucer' (a term coined in 1947 by the US media) — was by private pilot Kenneth Arnold, who saw "a group of glowing objects that he described as shaped like saucers while flying in Washington State" [1]. Since then, UFO sightings have occurred ceaselessly in many nations across the globe. Numerous investigations have been launched by the armed forces (usually the airforce), scientific communities, and government agencies (especially the CIA and FBI in the United States).

Over the decades, denial by these authorities of the existence of UFO phenomena, allegations of conspiracy theories, and 'cover-ups' have all been common [2], becoming the subject matter of television and film fiction and documentary. The possibility of Extraterrestrials (ETs) attempting communication (a related UFO phenomenon, since our current technology precludes the possibility of inter-stellar travel) is also a contentious issue, with mathematical "proofs" of the existence of planets with communicable species being either not very promising (only one planet, Earth!, in our Milky Way galaxy), or very optimistic (at least a million planets in our galaxy alone) [3].

In the 1970s, the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft were sent out to tour our Solar and beyond.

Accompanying each probe was a plaque co-designed by the late Carl Sagan (Figure 1).The plaque indicates our size (in comparison to the Pioneer), our position in the Solar System, and the time of the probe launches by use of the frequency rates of fourteen pulsars (radio wave stars) which change over time. Outside of religious practices, this is the first time in the history of humankind that an attempt at communication with "other worlds" using anything material had been undertaken. The plaque is not only a statement of who we are, but is a 'letter' to a would-be friend and an invitation for contact.



Figure 1


De Vito [4] considers the possibility of a language for communication based on the universals of natural numbers (1, 2, 3, . . . and so on), and the physical properties of the elements (Hydrogen, Carbon, Iron, etc.) However, he asks, "can we be sure that an alien would interpret a picture in the way that we intend?" Furthermore, the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) — an ongoing operation — involves the expenditure of hundreds of millions of dollars for any one project, with the potential to jump up to hundreds of billions in the next century if SETI telescopes need to be built on the dark side of the Moon to avoid ever-increasing, disruptive 'noise' created by our broadcasting and navigation satellites [5]. So far, having broadcast to hundreds of starsystems since1974 (from the Arecibo telescope, Puerto Rico, and elsewhere) the results have not been encouraging, particularly in consideration of the kind of money being spent [6].

Sagan wonders "why UFOs are never sighted over large cities by hordes of people" [7]. Since sightings first began, the UFO encounter — also the subject of many 1950s Hollywood sci-fi movies (good and bad) — has been a distinctly individual experience, with few exceptions, followed by either complete credulity, or complete scepticism from the general populace, in the real life accounts, and in the movie versions of these UFO encounters. Jung posits the UFO experience as necessarily unique: the individual is always at the centre of his or her experience, since experience starts in the individual psyche [8].

It is also in the individual psyche where the imagination is exercised. The film genre of science fiction well compensates (emotionally and intellectually) the greater majority who are not as privileged as the scientists, astrophysicists and astronomers working directly in the field of SETI and UFO investigation. Since a great deal of living is done vicariously, the cinema allows the realisation of our speculative notions through the reality of the moving picture. Realism in cinema (a movement which re-surfaces occasionally in the fine arts) is heightened by the latest techniques in film-making and special effects, as well as psychologically and visually realistic (real life) themes. Since the industry has had many decades to 'get it right' (in front of the camera and behind the scenes), the 'sci-fi' screen-writer can now concentrate on similar 1950s issues, but with the help of Hollywood 'hi-tech' grandiosity, so that the bolder issues of humanity's late-twentieth-century dilemmas are intensified. Four films, The Day The Earth Stood Still (1952), and Earth vs. The Flying Saucers (1956), and the more recent Independence Day (1996), and Mars Attacks (1996), show the differences and similarities in film-making — then and now.

The Day The Earth Stood Still is resolute in tone and its cinema noir mood and firm, black & white message is clear: a saviour is needed to rescue a floundering world gripped by post-war nuclear threat, escalating war, and world famine. As Jung had emphasised in 1958:

suddenly they [the UFOs] seem to portend something has been projected on them — a hope, an expectation. What sort of expectation you can see from the literature [and film genres]: it is of course the expectation of a saviour [9].

The hero, Klaatu (alias Mr. Carpenter) is none other than the humble Nazarene carpenter's son, newly 'resurrected' and bearing a crystal-clear warning for a 1950s style of consciousness: "Discipline yourselves or be destroyed!"

The malevolent robots in Earth vs. The Flying Saucers are not at all interested in human welfare, salvation or preservation over their own (the robots are actually robotic suits, inside which are the decrepit forms of an ancient race from a dying planet — hence their need to invade Earth). Human intelligence is matched against the intelligence and animosity of these advanced aliens,  and fortunately it is discovered that their saucers' gyroscopic systems are vulnerable to the high frequency generated by a weapon invented by the scientist Dr. Russell Marvin.

Invasion and destruction are common themes in sci-fi films, and Independence Day and Mars Attacks both feature these themes, but with rather different approaches. In Independence Day we get world destruction in 'full-colour,' but the skies have darkened somewhat. The darkness comes from the shadows of huge flying saucers over fifteen miles in diameter. Shadows cast by saucers of such scale are highly symbolic. Edinger comments on a similar motif manifested as a dream image of a "great black ring" hurtling through the air, representing the "collective phenomenon" of the "birth of the dark Self," known collectively, in Jungian terms, as the 'Shadow' side of humanity [10]. The many and varied pursuits of humankind: massive technological advances, and controversial environmental, economic, and political changes of global and undoubtedly negative impact, in spite of the so-called positive benefits promised to an unsuspecting world, have all taken their toll on humanity. Facing us now, as in the 1950s, is the threat of being "crushed by ... the Juggernaut[s]."

The Martians in Mars Attacks pick up on the same programme as the aliens in Independence Day — 'seek out the intelligent life and destroy it'. Psychologically, the Martians are familiar, and for good reason. They are skeletal underneath (like us): they are our own inner demons. This time, out of our psychological naiivete, our own 'other-worldly' (unconscious) and martial (warlike) renegadism and unconscionable neglect is destroying us as the belligerent Martian 'gremlins' obliterate all those who cross their path — wholesale slaughter executed remorselessly  and vindictively. Of interest is the fact that in Independence Day, destruction of the aliens is assured indirectly by the introduction of a computer virus into the defence systems of the alien saucers, which renders them vulnerable to attack by nuclear warheads from Earth.

In Mars Attacks, the Martians are (quite humorously) fatally vulnerable to the high-pitched yodeling of Country-and-Western singer Slim Whitman. These methods of defence recall the means by which Dr.Marvin saved the world in Earth vs. The Flying Saucers. Psychologically speaking, the suggestion is that while it is our human intelligence which saves us, it is our intellectual attitude that caused the problems in the first place. That is, malevolent aliens are the personifications of the dark Self —  specifically the Shadow archetype of which Jung speaks:

Closer examination of the dark characteristics — that is, the inferiorities constituting the shadow reveals that they have ... a kind of autonomy, and accordingly an obsessive or, better, possessive quality [11].

And Jung again: "the monsters of modern "horror" films are distorted versions of archetypes that will no longer be repressed" [12]. The painful truth of Mars Attacks is cleverly ameliorated by the good-humour sustained throughout the film. Such is the versatility of the art of film-making. Nietzsche's lines from "The Birth of Tragedy" are expressly appropriate here:

the truly serious task of art [is] to save the eye from gazing into the horrors of night and to deliver the subject by the healing balm of illusion from the spasms of the agitations of the will [13].

While the world of science fiction continues its parade of both hard-edged and fanciful truths, the stranger truth of real world facts also maintains its exposure through the popular press, book-stores, and magazine stands. From January 1981 to April 1982 almost every edition of a newly-released publication, OMEGA Science Digest, featured an article on UFOs. as well as the related subject of ETI (extraterrestrial intelligence) [14]. Two important points are suggested by all these articles the first point is that the frequency of material on these subjects is consistently high, and the other is that the level of serious inquiry into the 'true' nature of UFOs is also consistently high — both of which are a direct reflection of the scientific and public interest in these phenomena. Hyneck claims a staggering 57% of US citizens believe in UFOs as something real [15].

But what does 'real' mean to the majority of people? From a purely pragmatic point of view, real means the directly observable. At this point, 'the observable' becomes the operative word for such phenomena, so that recourse to psychological insight begins to look like a viable, alternative source of explanation for the UFO encounter. This is because firstly, we are still waiting for convincing evidence (a 'close encounter of the third kind' involving a large population and well-documented proof), and secondly, seeing is not always believing (we might need the confirmatory evidence of our other senses before we can begin to accept the psychologically real as physically real). Until then we must accept all possible explanations for the UFO phenomenon.

The fact and the fiction of UFOs and ETs, the outer reality of this world (and our actions in it) and the notion of an 'other world' are constantly with us. The representations of the events in outer space, while constantly changing, are fundamentally unitary and fired in nature and form, and are shown to be connected with another reality: that of the 'inner' world. This other reality also awaits our reflection.


UFOs: The Inner Experience

Psychology is one of the few disciplines which has managed successfully to situate itself between the Arts and the Sciences. In the field, solutions to questions are often prefaced by a consideration of inner (mental, emotional. 'spiritual') and/or outer (physical, behavioural, material) factors. Events, circumstances, experiences and behaviours may have to submit to the rigours of two, sometimes antithetical. but not irreconcilable discourses — either, experimentation, statistical analyses and interpretation (descriptive and inferential) may be used (where possible), on one hand, and/or contemplative, introspective and cognitive approaches of a more philosophical and imaginative quality may be needed, on the other. In this regard, the UFO phenomenon is no less an ambiguity, as far as approach to interpretation (explanation?) is concerned.

While it is easy to posit an explanation for UFO sightings/encounters as due to some form of psychological disorder (hallucination, delusion, etc.), a deeper consideration of the facts using psychodynamic theories may yield more pertinent information. For example, it has long been held amongst those working in the field of the psyche that the unknown provides a suitable hook for the projections of an individual's unconscious contents (a defense mechanism which relieves anxiety and allays self-knowledge of a harmful kind, thereby vesting the external world of objects with anthropomorphic or symbolic qualities not necessarily phenomenal to those objects). As Jung explains:

there are manifestations of the unconscious, even in normal people, which can be so "real" and impressive that the observer instinctively resists taking his perception as a delusion or hallucination. His instinct is right: when an inner process cannot be integrated it is often projected outwards [16].

In relation to projection, Davies states, "[i]n many early cultures, the sky was the domain of the gods, and the organisation of the cosmos reflected the metaphysical workings of the supernatural" [l7]. Speaking of the twentieth century, Jung puts Davies' observation into psychological perspective:

In the threatening situation of the world today, when people are beginning to see that everything is at stake, the projection-creating fantasy soars beyond the realm of the earthly organisation and powers into the heavens, into interstellar space, where the rulers of human fate, the gods, once had their abode in the planets [8].

So today we might argue, psychologically, that the supernatural has its roots in ourselves: in the psyche to be specific. But in our causal world we might ask of the specific nature and cause of this "threatening situation" which creates such projections. Jung suggests that "collective distress or danger," [19] is the prime cause for 'sightings' of UFOs and subsequent hysteria. Just after World War II and since then, this distress was promulgated by 'Cold War' relations with Russia, and the general cultural condition of an over-industrialised western mass-consumerism, where the soul of the modern materialistic individual was in serious "psychic dissociation."

If something is out there, it is fair to make the equally valid assumption that 'out there' may well mean 'in the psyche' — after all, since Plato's Cave analogy of 2500 years ago, Kant's critical idealism of the eighteenth century, and the philosophical and social criticisms of science in this century, it has been well accepted throughout the ages up to the present day (though not by a majority) that the sensory data of our experience (sights, sounds, sensations, etc.) are all the average person has to work with, and after considerable ratiocination, intuition, thought, and evaluation, our 'processed' sensory data must, for the most part, be taken as a construction, pre-determined by cultural and historical factors. The 'outer' experience may well be a projected topos of space and object (including the UFO event) constructed of inner processes. Space then becomes a complicated and multi-factorial issue with a need for clear-cut categories. But what is space?

We know that what is seen requires a space for the object to be in (this assumption does not require the acceptance, nor valid application of the optical realities of light and the laws of physics — for example, such laws are constantly violated in the dream state). The postmodern approach of Post-Structuralism has seen the deconstruction of binary or dualistic philosophical 'realities.' Cartesian antithetical relationships, while still functional and relevant, often create a blind to less reductive, more holistic interpretations of our phenomenal world. By marginalising the mind/body discourse, for example, we can equally see ourselves as personalities contingent with, and occupying the immediate space of the body', which is an extension of the external, 'outer' space of matter. Such binary forms as environment/heredity ('nurture/nature'), mind/body, spirit/matter can all be stripped of their dualistic resonances, so that the Platonic human soul, the essence of being, is seen as merely "another aspect of matter," Jung echoes this point:

psychic events are facts, are realities, and when you observe the stream of images within, you observe an aspect of the world, of the world within. Because the psyche, if you understand it as a phenomenon occurring in living bodies, is a quality of matter, just as our body consists of matter.... It is just as though you were seeing into another aspect of matter [20].

So saying, we can see ourselves as identical with matter, but, being incomplete in our knowledge of matter, we are necessarily incomplete in the knowledge of ourselves. This assumption explains (in part) the naive alchemist's search for the (philosophical) gold, the 'tincture', the 'elixir of life', the lapis (stone) in the vessel or flask. The alchemist was a victim of his own projections, and the space of matter became conflated with psychic space — the alchemist's search was a worthy, but fruitless venture, being in the wrong direction. Hence the need for a clear demarcation between spaces, even after having just equated psyche with matter. This paradox is resolved when it is realised that the word 'space' is context-bound with specific purposes and meanings conveyed only through discourse.

Therefore, some thinkers (including those of a Jungian persuasion) are of the opinion that the postulate of the existence of other spaces is a valid one. Some examples of space are:

(i) the outer, external space of our world and the things in it,

(ii) the bio-chemical space of the material brain (its neurons and neuronal activity) — this space could be included in (i),

(iii) the metaphysical or dogmatic space of the philosophers and theologians,

(iv) the space of the psyche.

The last example, the space of the psyche, is a moot point for some critics, who explain it away in biological or philosophical terms. But Edinger deems lack of experience as the prime cause of the ignorance of psychic space:

[the psyche] is a separate world of being and the  only reason attempts are made to explain it in terms of bio-chemistry or metaphysics is because the explainers who make the attempt are not aware of the existence, the reality, of the psyche as a separate world of being [21].

Jung's relativisation of psyche and matter, seems to conflict with Edinger's statement, until we recognize that Edinger's understanding of a plural concept of space (which must acknowledge the psyche) is a necessary discursive construct for maintaining the integrity of the psychic events which take place in psychic space. In fact, elsewhere Jung supports this notion. To reduce the numinosum to mere formulae or neural activity in the brain is to strip a profoundly human experience of its meaningfulness, and serves to relegate human functioning to mechanistic, biochemical and hydro-dynamic causes. As Jung states:

anything that cannot be exploited in someway is uninteresting — hence the devaluation of the psyche. In recent times this traditional error has been made even worse by an allegedly biological view which sees man [sic] as being no further advanced than a herd animal and fails to understand any of his motivations outside the categories of hunger, power, and sex [22].

Recognising the value of the psyche in its own right, and its symbolic use of space and object, Jung draws attention to a kind of 'synchronistic' relationship between flying saucers and his patients dreams, drawings and paintings [23]. For example, he tells of a certain "Miss X" — a 55 year old, well-educated, American woman who was unmarried, but secretly wanted marriage and children, and "had reached her limit and got stuck" [24]. During therapy with Jung she was inspired to paint a series of mandala forms. Two such floating mandalas hovering over New York and Manhattan, respectively (although rather floral and ornate) recall the scenario of flying saucers hovering over city scapes as seen in the films mentioned above. As represented in the mandalas, Miss X came to realize in her life a "consolidation" of the totality or wholeness of her Self against disintegrating external influences (social, cultural, etc.) This interpretation becomes clearer when we consider Jung's understanding of the historical, mythological, and psychological nature of the 'UFO' form.

In Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Sky [25], Jung asks three fundamental questions in relation to flying saucers:

(i) "Are they real or are they mere fantasy products?"

(ii) "If they are real, exactly what are they?"

(iii) "If they are fantasy, why should such a rumour exist?"

From Jung's assumption that there are two types of reality — the physically real and the psychically real — both of which may have the same degree of emotional effect and meaningfulness to the experient, and notwithstanding the possible, extra-terrestrial reality of UFOs and ETs, these questions may be reworked and condensed into the single, perhaps more pertinent question, "What is the nature of the meaningfulness gained from UFOs (and other usually round objects) which causes such emotional effects in individuals?" This question is answered when we consider our mythic past and relate this to our current era in terms of 'inner' need.

Jung sees the origins of a "living myth" developing in our own time, where the sighting of mainly round objects harkens back to the ancient archetypal form of the circle, or mandala (Sanskrit: mandala = disc or circle). The archetype is like the Platonic Form or Idea, but in fact provides the empirical (biological) under-pinning for the existence in the psyche of such Forms or Ideas, and is given as an a priori construct of the human psyche — its function is homeostatic [26]. The circle is none other than the "protective" or apotropaic ('evil-averting') circle, "whether in the form of the prehistoric "sun wheel" ... or a modern symbol of order, which organises and encloses the psychic totality" [27].

Circular symbolism, as stated, has historical antecedents. In ancient Egypt the Sky-Mother Nut, curved over a circular world: in 1566, in Basel, Switzerland, Samuel Coccius saw "many large black globes ... moving before the sun with great speed"; and a few years earlier in 1561, in Nuremberg, Germany, a number of people reported seeing "globes", and "plates" and "crosses" near the sun [28]. Plato likened the soul to a sphere (the three-dimensional version of the two-dimensional circle), while the alchemistic winged sphere or the rotundum (Latin: rotundum = 'round thing') both expressed an "involuntary archetypal or mythological conception of an unconscious content)" — effectively the individual's total personality which extends beyond the ego complex [29].

Circles have been used to symbolise gods and God, "who is a circle whose centre is everywhere and the circumference nowhere" [30]. Circles have also symbolised the Sun, and Heaven and the Earth, partly by observation, and partly by projection. In all these cases the circle is maintained as the sub-structure of the particular socially, culturally, and historically determined representations of the psychic totality, whether in the form of the mandala, or world sphere, or the heavens. To satisfy our twentieth-century mindset, we expect the 'heavenly' (spiritual) circular form to conform to a rational, space-age consciousness, where "things seen in the sky" must have power systems born of a technology beyond earthly expectations.

The totality of the circle further relates to the phenomenology of the Self (specifically the wholeness of the Self, by which is meant not just the ego, but consciousness and the unconscious). Through inner experiences beyond the ego, therefore, it can be seen that the Self is in constant communication with the ego. It is remarkable just how frequently circle symbolism occurs in the inner life of many people — especially those experiencing certain forms of psychic disorientation of disturbance. Jung gives an account of  an educated woman who dreamed of a UFO encounter [31]. She was with a friend "standing on the edge of the world seeking." In the sky were the crescent moon, the morning star, the rising Sun, and an "elliptical, silvery object" with people on its  rim ("all men dressed in silvery white"). The women  were awe-struck and trembled where they stood. The woman's friend, ill and fearful of death, was in an anxious state at the time of the dream. The UFO and its crew of men (a ship of the dead and its 'spirits') hung above her consciousness as the connecting link between her ego and the greater unknown. Her friend died two years later (the dream was premonitory).

Although the UFO symbolises a "ship of death" in the above-mentioned case, the circular form can have a positive aspect. An example of circular symbolism (a mandala form) comes from a seven year old boy who was the "offspring of a problem marriage" [32]. He hung circular drawings around his bed and "called them his "loves" and would not go to sleep without them." The "magical" pictures acted as protective, apotropaic circles. An answer to the question of meaningfulness now becomes clear. The boy's drawings reveal the numinous presence of wholeness within his psychic structure, which he sought in the symbolism of his images: the emotional effect is given in their numinosity, and the reality of a greater power (in the psyche) is an indestructible value to the boy. It is clear then that the total personality is a goal or a process of continual revelation in the person. Its futurity seems a certainty, since the unconscious has relatively absolute, but usually inaccessible knowledge of the individual's life-experience, and the resources for healing. Dick's opinion on UFOs aligns with these observations: the "real nature [of the UFOs] is most probably to be found in the human mind rather than in an objective (much less an extraterrestrial) reality" [33].

As psychic projections appropriate to a technological age in which anything religious is just not convincing anymore, the UFO stands, in its symbolic guise, as an irrefutable fact that the total personality (if it looks like anything) looks like a circle, or sphere. This circular (mandala) form has numinous healing, or restorative power, of which only the experient can speak. This numinosity has an aspect which is transcendent in nature (that is, beyond consciousness), extending beyond the realm of the mundane, earthly life, and can be life-enhancing and meaningful.

Afterword

The variety of shapes of spacecraft reported by eye-witnesses compares favourably with the madalas drawn by Jung's patients. Here, in these mandala images, we get a glimpse of a "world within." While the possibility of UFOs and ETs is not denied, nor yet proven, it is an unquestionable fact that within the human soul (for want of a better word) is the image of both these phenomena: they stand for some higher, more 'advanced' representation of 'truth,' of which we are only beginning to discover is the human psyche.


References and Notes

l. Ian Ridpath, Signs of Life (Bungay, Suffolk: Richard Clay/The Chaucer press. 1977).

2. Paris Flammonde, UFO Exist! (New York: Ballantine Books, 1976);
Donald Goldsmith & Tobias Owen, The Search for Life in the Universe (Menlo Park, CA.: Benjamin/Cummings, 1980);
Patrick Huyghe, "Scientists Who Have Seen UFOs, OMEGA, Mar/Apr. 1982; pp. 94-99, pp. 120-12l; and
Jacques Vallee, UFOs: The Psychic Solution (Aylesbury, Bucks: Panther, 1977).

3. John D. Barrow, & Frank J. Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle (New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990);
Hanbury Brown, Man and the Stars (Oxford: Oxford University press, l978); and
Carl Sagan, Other Worlds (New York: Bantam Books, l975).

4. Carl L. De Vito, "Languages, Science and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence" Leonardo 25 No. 1 (I992) pp. l3-16.

5. Nigel Henbest, "SETI: The Search Continues," New Scientist 36 No.1842 (1992) pp.12-13.

6. Henbest [5] and Sagan [3J.

7. Sagan [3]

8. C. G. Jung, Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Sky (London: Routledge and Keegan Paul,1977b).

9. C. G. Jung, C. G. Jung Speaking: Interviews and Encounters (Princeton, N. J.  Princeton University Press, 1977a).

10. Edward Edinger. The Creation of Consciousness (Toronto: Inner City, I984).

11. C. G. Jung, Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self (New York: Princeton University Press. 1978 ).

12. C. G. Jung, Man and His Symbols (New York: Anchor, 1964).

13. Friedrich Nietzsche, "The Birth of Tragedy, in Basic Writings of Nietzsche (New York: Modern Library, 1968) p. 1l8.

14. Articles from OMEGA Science Digest:
Jan/Feb l98l: Leading Investigator of UFO reports. John Pinkney, stated that over 80% of American astronomers surveyed in 1977 considered UFOs as a worthy subject of investigation. John Pinkney, "The UFO Debate: A Statement in Self Defense" OMEGA Jan/Feb. (l98l) pp. l6-17;
Mar/Apr 1981: Scientist, Dr. Robert Jastrow showed statistically that not only is there a high a priori probability for the existence of extraterrestrial life, but that alien life forms would be so technologically advanced that space travel would be possible — even over distances of 4.3 light-years (the distance to our nearest neighbours in the triple star system ALPHA CENTAURI).
Robert Jastrow, "The UFO Debate Goes ON" OMEGA Mar/Apr (1981) pp 115;
Sept/Oct: Project Blue Book advisor, Dr. J. Allen Hyneck, Dr. Bruce S. Maccabee (Navy physicist), and NASA research scientist, Dr. Richard E. Haines all endorse the investigation of UFO reporting and acknowledge the reality of Air-Force, CIA, FBI, and US Government reluctance to discuss the issue, and their denial of any conclusive proof or existence of UFOs.
Quenton Fogarty, "The UFO Phenomenon Just Does Not Go Away", OMEGA Sept/Oct. (l98l) pp. 18-21, pp. 116-17; Nov/Dec l98l: UFOs are explained as either ET spacecraft or Time Machines.
Damien Broderick, "What if..." OMEGA Nov/Dec. (1981) pp. 58-62;
Mar/Apr 1982: Ignoring the hoaxes and natural explanations for UFO phenomena (hallucinations, temperature inversions), many reports (including those made by meteorologists, geologists and nuclear engineers)  remain unexplained. Huyghe [2].

15. Fogarty [14].

16. Jung [8].

17. Paul Davies. The Edge of Infinity: Beyond the Black Hole (London: Penguin, 1994).

18. Jung [8].

19. Jung [8].

20. Jung [9].

21. Edward Edinger, The Mysterium Lectures (Toronto: Inner City, 1995).

22. C. G. Jung, The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (Princeton. N. J.: Princeton University Press. 1990).

23. Jung [8].

24. Jung [22].

25. Jung [8].

26, Jolande Jacobi, Complex/Archetype/Symbol in the Psychology of C. G. Jung (New. York: Princeton University Press, 1974).

27. Jung [8].

28. Jung [8].

29. Jung [8].

30. Jung [8].

31. June [81.

32. Jung [22].

33. Steven J. Dick, "Other Worlds: The Cultural Significance of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate," Leonardo 29 No. 2 (1996) pp. 133-37.


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